The Principles of Animation

The principles of animation were introduced by Disney in 1981  as sort of rules to follow to make a clean looking and entertaining animation.
Squash and Stretch:

The First Principle is simple, it is the action of squashing and stretching the object that you want to animate to coincide with a bouncing animation or other types of movement.



Anticipation is the actions you make a character or object do to prepare an audience for them to do something.

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Staging is the act of placing objects into the stage to emphasis an emotion or to point the audiences attention to a certain spot.

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Straight ahead action and pose to pose:

These are two different forms of animation, straight ahead action is drawing the character at each frame whereas pose to pose is where you draw the character at different poses and let the program fill in the frames in between.

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Follow through and overlapping action:

These are animation techniques that help you to improve your render. The point of follow through is that you have a continuing animation after the general animation has stopped such has hair flow or clothing continuing to move

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Slow in and slow out:

Most objects need to time to accelerate for movement, this should be reflected through character movement by the easing in and out of movements to show a change in speed.

Slow In Slow Out


Arcs are the natural movement that everyone makes so if you use arc for movement in animation then it will be a more natural feeling movement.

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Secondary action:

Adding a secondary action to the main one such as someone walking and moving their arms along with the movement, these actions make the animations seem more realistic which can really help captivate an audience.

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Timing is the amount of frames used for an individual movement or animation. This translates to the speed of the animation so timing it can help decide how fast a character will move.

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An animation without exaggeration can come across as dry so by exaggerating actions, they can seem more meaningful and entertaining to an audience.

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Solid drawing:

Solid drawing is the act of taking three dimensions. The animator needs to be a skilled artist and they need to have a knowledge of 3D space to make an animation more realistic.

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Appeal is important in a character to keep an audience interested. An appealing character doesn’t have to be well drawn or easy to sympathise with as villains and monsters can be appealing all it needs to be is interesting enough for an audience to get involved with and enjoy the character.

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